Biomarkers (NAD(P)H, NADH, FAD, Tryptophan) for Cellular Metabolism

The importance of autofluorescence for studying cells and tissues lies mainly in its potential for diagnostic applications and as a research tool for understanding the underlying mechanisms of molecular interactions and cellular processes under native conditions. We developed a methodology to investigate the energy metabolism using intrinsically fluorescent NADH and flavins as biomarkers for cellular energy metabolism. We also developed a methodology using 2-photon and lifetime imaging methodology to discriminate the NAD(P)H and NADH. We also developed a 3-photon lifetime imaging configuration to investigate tryptophan as an alternative biomarker for energy metabolism.